The wolf--a man-made scapegoat
In the beginning man made a pact with nature. All animals, not only domestic but also those that were thought to be dangerous, were held sacred, and to kill and eat them was regarded as murder and punishable. Save on rare occasions when the whole tribe participated, the use of their flesh was forbidden.
Thus it came about that small groups or clans of men concluded quasi-religious pacts with such animals as the bull, the hare, the lion, the snake, the eagle and the scorpion. The wolf was one of these animals. The clan that chose the wolf made him their totem. He became their brother, their name and emblem, their ancestor, the revered animal which it was forbidden to kill or eat, the tribe's guide and protector who never attacked its members. He was a full member, as it were, and had to respect and share in all the rights and duties of his brother-men.
This fundamental pact or primitive taboo was reflected in a mandatory rule--"thou shalt not kill". This pact applied to men as well as to their brothers the wolves, and it is still observed between the wolves themselves.…