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Contents Recent Developments United Nations Peacekeeping in Darfur Executive Branch Sanctions on Sudan Humanitarian Conditions China and Sudan Recent Developments: Southern Sudan Status of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement Historical Context The North-South Peace Agreement: Background Implementation of the CPA The United States and the North-South Peace Agreement The Darfur Conflict and Impact on Chad and CAR The Crisis in Darfur: Background Darfur Developments: Accountability for Atrocities The Janjaweed: Background The Darfur Peace Agreement and Status of Implementation U.S. Humanitarian Funding Possible Policy Options Concerning Darfur Engagement Sanctions Regime Change International Intervention Bilateral Targeted Military Measures 110th Congress Legislation Appendix Executive Order: Blocking Property of and Prohibiting Transactions with the Government of Sudan Executive Order: Blocking Property of Persons in Connection with the Conflict in Sudan's Darfur Region
In July 2008, seven UNAMID peacekeepers were killed and over a dozen wounded in an attack by heavily armed pro-government militia. Another peacekeeper was killed a few days later.
In May 2008, government of Sudan forces destroyed the town of Abyei, displaced over 50,000 people, and killed over a dozen. Abyei town was largely burned, according to witnesses. (1) In July 2008, the government of Sudan and the SPLM signed an agreement on "defining and demarcating" the Abyei area. The parties agreed to refer the Abyei dispute for arbitration.
In July 2008, the ICC Chief Prosecutor accused President Bashir of Sudan of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. The Prosecutor asked ICC judges to issue an arrest warrant for President Bashir. The government of Sudan condemned the ICC action, while the African Union asked for a delay or withdrawal of the ICC case against Bashir. The SPLM issued a press release stating that "the solution to the crisis is for the Government of National Unity to forge an understanding with the international community and to co-operate with ICC on the legal processes." Vice President Salva Kiir was appointed to chair a "Crisis Committee" to deal with the ICC process and other emerging issues.
United Nations Peacekeeping in Darfur
On July 31, 2007, acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1769. The resolution calls for the deployment of a hybrid United Nations-African Union force in Darfur (UNAMID). The U.N. is expected to fully deploy 26,000 peacekeeping troops to Darfur by mid-2008. As of late May 2008, the United Nations deployed 9,563 peacekeeping personnel to Darfur, Sudan. In March 2008, the United States pledged $100 million to train and equip African peacekeepers for deployment under UNAMID. The resolution:
1. Reaffirms its commitment to stop the suffering in Darfur, and to work with the government of Sudan toward this end.
2. Commends Sudan's acceptance of a hybrid operation to be deployed in Darfur and the ongoing efforts of the African Union Mission in Sudan, AMIS.
3. Refers to the Addis Ababa Agreement that the hybrid operation be predominantly comprised of African troops.
4. Expresses concern about ongoing attacks on civilians in Darfur and the security of humanitarian aid workers in the region.
5. Welcomes the appointment of the AU-UN Joint Special Representative for Darfur, Rodolphe Adada, and Force Commander, Martin Agwai.
6. Calls on all parties to facilitate the full deployment of Light and Heavy Support Packages to AMIS and preparations for UNAMID within 30 days.
7. States that UNAMID shall establish an initial operational capability for its headquarters by October 2007, in addition to the management and control structure of the operation.
8. Decides that by October 2007, UNAMID shall assume command of all Light Support and Heavy Support personnel as may be deployed by October.
9. States that by December 31, 2007 at the latest, UNAMID will have fully implemented all of the elements of its mandate and will assume authority from AMIS.
10. Calls for a unity of command and control provided by the United Nations.
11. Demands an immediate cessation of hostilities in Darfur.
12. States that UNAMID is authorized to take the necessary actions to protect its personnel and humanitarian workers. The resolution also calls for the protection of civilians, "without prejudice to the responsibilities of the government of Sudan."
As of late May 2008, an estimated 9,563 UNAMID troops have been deployed. (2) In late December 2007, UNAMID officially assumed command and control from the African Union peacekeeping force. The United Nations continues to face serious obstacles in force deployment in large part due to restrictions imposed by the Government of National Unity (GoNU). The Government signed the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) with the United Nations in February 2008. The Government, however, continues to reject non-African countries, including offers from Thailand, Nepal, and Norway.
According to Jean-Marie Guehenno, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, "authorization for the deployment of six helicopters to El-Fashir had not been obtained as yet, and UNAMID had not been given permission to fly at night." (3) The government of Sudan continues to insist on having the authority to "temporarily disable the communications network" of UNAMID during Government security operations. The Government is also demanding that UNAMID provide advance notification of movements. UNAMID also faces logistical difficulties, in part due to lack of helicopters.
In January 2008, a UNAMID supply convoy was attacked by Sudanese government forces in West Darfur. The United Nations and the United States condemned the attack. (4) In January 2008, President Omer Bashir of Sudan appointed Musa Hilal, a leader of the Janjaweed, as Advisor to the Minister of Federal Affairs. In April 2006, the United Nations Security Council imposed a travel ban and asset freeze on Musa Hilal. Bush Administration officials have criticized the appointment of Hilal. (5) President Bashir argued that Hilal is an influential leader in Darfur and that his government does not accept the allegation against Hilal. The appointment of Hilal is seen by observers as another obstacle to peace in the Darfur region.
Executive Branch Sanctions on Sudan
On May 29, 2007, the Bush Administration imposed new economic sanctions on two Sudanese government officials (Ahmad Muhammed Harun, Sudan's State Minister for Humanitarian Affairs and Awad Ibn Auf, head of Sudan's Military Intelligence and Security), a leader of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), Khalil Ibrahim, and 31 Sudanese companies. According to Administration officials, "Harun and Auf have acted as liaisons between the Sudanese government and the government-supported Janjaweed militia, which have attacked and brutalized innocent civilians in the region. The two individuals also have provided the Janjaweed with logistical support and directed attacks." (6) Of the 31 companies sanctioned, 30 are either owned or controlled by the government of Sudan and the other, the Azza Air Transport Company, violated the arms embargo in Darfur. These companies are banned from doing business within the U.S. financial system and with U.S. companies, and U.S. citizens are restricted from doing business with these companies.
The Administration's objective in imposing new sanctions is to increase pressure on the government of Sudan to end the violence in Darfur. President Bush also announced plans to consult with U.S. allies on the United Nations Security Council about additional multilateral sanctions to be imposed on the government of Sudan. Some of the proposed sanctions include an expansion of the existing arms embargo, a prohibition of offensive military flights over Darfur, and improved monitoring and reporting of violations. Deputy Secretary of State John Negroponte also urged European allies to impose financial sanctions to match those of the United States. (7) On June 25, 2007, at an international conference on Darfur in Paris, France, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice asserted that sanctions must be maintained to discourage the Sudanese Government from reneging on its acceptance of a larger peacekeeping force in Darfur. Rice stated that, "We can no longer afford a situation in Darfur where agreements are made and not kept. Until Sudan has actually carried out the commitments it's taken, I think we have to keep the possibility of consequences on the table." (8)
Conditions in Darfur continue to deteriorate, according to United Nations officials and non-governmental organizations. In March 2007, two African Union peacekeepers were killed in Graida, Darfur. According to the U.N. Secretary General's February 23, 2007 report to the Security Council, "the security situation in Darfur has been characterized by increased violence during the reporting period." The same report stated that tension along the Sudan-Chad border remains high. Humanitarian workers have also seen an escalation in violence against NGOs throughout Darfur. More than 400 humanitarian workers have been relocated to other locations on several occasions because of security concerns. Over two dozen trucks have been taken from NGOs and properties damaged. According to the U.N. Secretary General's December 24, 2007 report, "In October alone, more than 20,000 civilians were displaced by armed clashes between Government forces and non-signatories to the Darfur Peace Agreement and among Darfur movements themselves." (9) According to the same report, "violence and tensions persist in camps for the displaced. The raids of Government forces and police into camps, as well as conflicts in and around the camps, have led to lose of life, destruction of shelters and the arbitrary detention of civilians." In July 2008, eight UNAMID peacekeepers were killed in an attack by pro-government militia in Darfur.
The United Nations Mission in Sudan announced after a four-day visit to the southern Darfur town of Gereida in mid-June that the security situation had not improved and that Janjaweed attacks against civilians, especially women, continue. UNMIS also reported that attacks against humanitarian convoys in Darfur persist, and that a number of NGO vehicles have been shot at, car jacked, or robbed. In May 2007, two health service NGOs withdrew from Tawila, North Darfur, due to insecurity and news of recent attacks on humanitarian convoys. Meanwhile, Darfuris continue to flee to neighboring Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR). Both countries are still experiencing cross-border attacks by the Janjaweed, and the World Health Organization (WHO) stated in a recent assessment that refugees in both countries are at significant risk for health. A press release given by Amnesty International on June 26, 2007 expressed concern that rising insecurity in the CAR is going unnoticed by the international community due to the continued emphasis on Darfur and eastern Chad. According to the United Nations, twelve humanitarian workers have been killed and 15 wounded in 2007.
China and Sudan
Relations between China and Sudan are warm. In the 1990s, political, economic, and military relations between Sudan and China expanded, and China became a key trading partner, investing billions of dollars in Sudan's oil sector. China reportedly imports an estimated 64% of Sudan's oil and China's National Petroleum Corporation is the largest shareholder (47%) in the two biggest oil consortiums in Sudan, Petrodar and the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC). In addition to the oil sector, China is an important player in other sectors of the Sudanese economy. In February 2007, China signed a $1.2 billion agreement to upgrade the railway between Khartoum and Port Sudan. China is also an active participant in power generation, the arms industry, and other major infrastructure projects. China built the 1000-mile oil pipeline used by Sudan to move its oil from the oil fields in South Sudan to Port Sudan.
China is an important supplier of weapons to the Government of Sudan. Sudan also produces significant quantities of weapons itself and is the third largest arms manufacturer in Africa, after South Africa and Egypt. Human rights groups and other observers accuse the Chinese government of being the principal supplier of weapons in violation of a U.N. weapons embargo on Sudan. In 2005, China reportedly sold Sudan $24 million in arms and ammunition and $57 million worth of spare parts for aircraft and helicopters. (10) In July 2008, a BBC Televison report presented evidence of Chinese army trucks and several A5 Fantan fighter planes in Darfur. In February 2008, Fantan fighter planes were used …