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The 1990s: From Managing to Leading
Managers in America today share similar dilemmas. The labor force is changing, organizational structures are different, social and economic forces are new and constantly evolving, and the marketplace is now global. Certainly, many of the "tried-and-true" management techniques developed and used through the 1970s and 1980s are yielding unacceptable results as America moves into the 1990s. Why is that the case? What exactly is changing?
Primary changes expected
in the 1990s
In the 1990s, the following changes are expected: . The workforce will be diverse, with 50 percent of it female and 43 percent minority; 20 percent will be "guest" workers from foreign countries. . The average worker will be 40. . Illiteracy will be a problem, with 18 percent of adults reading at or below the fifth-grade level. . There will be insufficient numbers of people for entry-level positions; at the same time, this shrinking labor force's "mind-set" will reflect that of baby busters who value jobs with variety, flexibility, choice, emphasis on autonomy, and "psychological ownership." . Half the workforce will be working on a permanent part-time status, others will be job-sharing, and still others on some type …