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SOURCE: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, June 10, 1992.
"Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk-reduction programs have been developed to discourage homosexual/bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with men) from engaging in anal and oral sexual intercourse with partners who are infected with HIV or whose infection status is unknown. The consistent and proper use of latex condoms with adequate lubrication may reduce the risk for HIV transmission during intercourse. To assist these men in understanding and following `safer' sexual behaviors, the Denver Disease Control Service conducted a longitudinal cohort study as part of CDC's Demonstration Projects for HIV Prevention and Risk Reduction. This report describes the effects of individual counseling sessions - including a basic introduction to the availability and proper use of condoms and lubricants -on short- and long-term behavior change among a group of homosexual/bisexual men in Denver during 1988-1991.
"Participants were recruited from June 1, 1988, through January 31, 1991, through referrals from community-based organizations, public clinics and other healthcare providers; advertising campaigns; and word-of-mouth communication. Study participants made two visits at study entry, then made follow-up visits every 6 months. During initial visits, participants 1) completed self-administered questionnaires regarding knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and sexual behaviors (including condom use); 2) underwent HIV-antibody testing; 3) received extensive counseling on the natural history of HIV infection, modes of HIV transmission and ways to prevent infection; and 4) received skills-provision training, which included placing and removing condoms on and off a rubber phallus with lubricant and reviewing a poster about condoms and lubricants. The poster reemphasized the risk for transmission of HIV associated with anal intercourse; encouraged the use of latex condoms and water-based lubricants, including those with nonoxynol-9 spermicide; and discouraged anal intercourse without condoms, rectal douching before and after anal intercourse and the use of "natural membrane" condoms and petroleum-based lubricants. At each follow-up visit, participants completed questionnaires …