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Cosmetic Raw Materials Literature and Patent Review 1989-1991
Of the new cosmetic raw materials and/or new uses for known materials appearing in the patent and scientific literature for the period 1989 to very early 1991, approximately 24% of the ingredients and new uses documented are for skin care products, mainly for skin lightening and skin treatment preparations. Surprisingly, there were very few innovative raw materials disclosed for enhancing skin moisturization. About 23% are concerned with hair - care and (as was the case in the last review) almost one-third of these new materials are for promoting hair growth. It is interesting to note that most of the disclosures on skin lighteners and hair growth promoters continue to appear in the Japanese literature.
About 14% of the new materials reviewed deal with new and improved sunscreens - more than double the proportion found in the literature in last year's review - pointing to the increased attention being paid to this class of products. Thirteen percent of the new products are surfactants for milder skin and hair cleaning; and new emulsifying agents. The remainder are mainly antimicrobials, antioxidants, makeup, and antiperspirants/deodorants. As in past reviews, no attempt has been made to canvas suppliers for their newer raw materials, since these already appear in trade advertisements.
As is my custom, this year's review also contains a summary of other pertinent reviews on raw materials appearing during this reporting period. These include reviews on: the use of silicones in cosmetics by Klimisch, including a discussion of silicone chemistry in relation to formulation; organic modified silicone copolymers for cosmetic use by Floyd; the use of laurylmethicone copolyol for preparation of water-in-oil emulsions by Krzysik et.; silicone surfactants by Schaefer; natural cosmetics ingredients including cerebrosides, ceramides, vitamins, marine extracts, and essential oils by Smith et al.; functional natural oils, including jojoba, avocado, macadamia nut, and meadowfoam oils, by Ricks; lipids used in skin cosmetics by Helme; the biological active substances occurring in animal and plants including saponins, holotoxins, and polysaccharides, by Hayashi; and herbal extracts, describing methods of essential oil extracts and quality measurements, by Muller.
The stability and efficacy of UV sunscreens, including the effects of solvents on the UV absorbance and their stability to photolysis were reviewed by Shaath; the use of microfine titanium dioxide as UVA and UVB sunscreen by Brown et al.; sunscreen formulation including the use of sunscreens, and film formers by Klein; sunscreen efficacy including as discussion on the sunscreen used in cosmetics, UV radiation and its effects on the skin, clinical evaluation of efficacy by Billhimer; testing the efficacy of sunscreens including the effect of source and spectral power distribution of the UV radiation, as well as the choice of the endpoint by Urbach; the chemistry of sunscreens by Shaath; 5-methoxypsoralen-containing sunscreens by Young; increasing skin pigmentation by oxidative or enzymic mechanisms using tyrosine, psoralens, or riboflavin, by Jung et al.
The use of sulfosuccinates in the formulation of gentle skin cleansers was covered by Rigano et al.; the properties of sulfosuccinate surfactants by Schoenberg; the use of cetylphosphates are cosmetic emulsifiers by DePolo et al.; the composition and formulation of fatty acid amides for detergents and shampoos by Bilbo et al.; the effect of soaps, anionic and cationic synthetic surfactants on the physical structure of foam by Rieger; the use of polymeric acrylates, methacrylates and acrylamides as lime soap dispersants by Nagarajan et al.; the use of perfluoropolymethyl-isopropyl ethers in skin and hair cleaning by Rigano et al.; the form and function of lather enhancer cellulosics in personal care products by Conklin; the properties and effects on nontherapeutic cosmetic active ingredients which exert an effect either on the skin surface or after entering the skin by Tronnier; the action of vitamin A on skin and mucous membranes by Jarrett; the use of bio-esters in cosmetics by McCrae et al.; trace minerals in cosmetics by Idson ;[29,30] the use of urea in cosmetics including toxicity, pharmacology and moisturizing properties by Raab; the use of native collagens in cosmetics by Wajda; the esters of sucrose and glucose as cosmetic materials, including anti-irritancy, mode of action, and moisturization by Desai.
The significance of unsaturated fatty acids for membrane fluidity and their effects on the skin following topical application in cosmetics were reviewed by Burczyk; polymer interactions to enhance the function of hyaluronic acid by Pavlichko; the application of alkyl glycosides to cosmetics by Sasaki; the properties of cholesteryl 12-hydroxystearate and its applications to cosmetics by Ueda.
Toxicological studies of cosmetic ingredients and their metabolism in the skin were discussed by Schleusener et al.; in vitro test methods for testing cosmetic ingredients by Spengler et al.; the arguments for and against using liposomes in cosmetics by Lautenschlager; the stability, physical properties, and characterization of liposomes in liquid and semisolid preparations by Roding; the application of liposomes to cosmetics by Suzuki et al.; and Hayward et al.; the function and applications of high-purity powdered lecithin, including its emulsifying, film-forming, antioxidant, and humectant properties by Takahashi; active ingredient encapsulation by Stephan; and the formation of microcapsules by coacervation and their use in cosmetics by Thies. The development and application in cosmetics of pure gold coating powder were covered by Yoshii et al.; the treatment of pigments and their use to impart color to the skin by Schlossman; and the isolation of natural pigments from algae by Karuna-Karan et al.; The use of silk proteins in cosmetics, including amino acid composition of silk fibroin was described by Brooks; the structure, properties, and synthesis of whiskey lactone, whiskey lactone in plants and liquors, and its use as an insect repellent, by Tsukasa; the use of pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid and its derivatives in the cosmetic industry by Busch; the use of dimethyl ether as a propellant for aerosol deodorants and antiperspirants by Bohnenn; odor control and deodorants by Nishida; and the manufacture of fatty acid esters with immobilized microbial lipases by McCrae et al.
Hair gels including hair setting mechanism, hair fixative polymers, and fragrances were reviewed by Lochhead; the design and effect of hair conditioning agents by Hoeffkes et al.; and the use of multifunctional cationics for skin and hair care by Smith et al. Isostearic acid and isostearic acid derivatives by Roehl et al.; the use of chitosan in cosmetics by Lang et al.; the properties and rheology of konjac and carrageenan by Tye. The Raw Materials of Perfumery, was edited by Rouhar; preservative systems for cosmetic products were discussed by Orth et al.; the acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity of carrageenan by Weiner; experimental methods of determining skin compatibility of raw materials and finished products by Matthies; the health risk assessment of oxidative hair dye mixtures by Spengler et al.; and the analysis of nitrosamines in cosmetics was covered by Ikeda et al.
The preparation of azelaic acid diesters and preparations containing them or acne treatment are disclosed in a patent assigned to L'Oreal. A composition from the patent is shown in Formula 1.
Table : Formula 1
Acne Treatment Cream Carbethoxyethyl azelate 10.00% Ethyl alcohol 44.50 Propylene glycol 22.10 Carboxyvinyl polymer 0.90 Diisopropanolamine 0.45 Water qs 100.00
From Reference 68
In another patent assigned to L'Oreal, 2-methyl-N-[3,5-bis trifluoromethyl phenyl] propanamide is disclosed as a useful compound for inhibiting sebum secretion. The compound is useful in anti-acne medications and also for the treatment of oily skin.
The anti-inflammatory activity of phospholipid-polyphenol complexes are discussed by Bombardelli et al. In drug absorption studies the use of these complexes enhanced the transepidermal barrier penetration and permitted a reduction in the active dose.
The use of glycopyranosides to reduce possible irritation of cosmetic products is disclosed in a patent assigned to Kanebo, Ltd. Methyl 4,6-o-anisylidene glycopyranosides, methyl 4,6-o-vinillylidene glycopyranosides, methyl 4,6-o-veratrylidene glycopyranosides, methyl 4,6-o-isovanillylidene glycopyranosides, methyl 4,6-o-ethylvanillylidene glycopyranosides, and methyl, 4,6-o-syringylidene glycopyranosides are used with perfume-containing cosmetics. The compounds are said to prevent skin irritation caused by perfumes. A lotion containing 0.8% cinnamic aldehyde and 1% methyl 4,6-o-anisylidene-[alpha]-D-gluco pyranoside applied to the backs of rabbits showed no irritation.
Bactericides containing ferruginol and totarol for Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, and their uses in pharmaceutical skin and oral preparations, are disclosed in patents assigned to Shiseido Co., Ltd.[72,73] Ferruginol exhibited good antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Propionibacter acnes, and are useful for the treatment of periodontal disease and acne. A composition for the treatment of acne is shown in Formula 2.
Table : Formula 2
Anti-Acne Lotion Ferruginol 0.01% Glycerin 2.00 1,3-Butylene glycol 2.00 Sodium citrate 0.10 Ethyl alcohol 10.00 Polyoxyethylene oleyl ether 0.50 Methylparaben 0.10 Water qs 100.00
From Reference 72
The use of vinyl polymers as antimicrobial agents in shampoos and soaps is disclosed in a patent assigned to Kao Corp. In one example poly (1-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium) bromide at 10 ppm added to a solution containing 3 x 10 Eschericia coli organisms completely destroyed the bacteria in 30 minutes. These antimicrobial agents, when added to shampoos and soaps are effective in controlling microorganisms on skin and hair as well as on clothes, tableware, and plastics.
Dube et al. report that the essential of Ocimum basilicum at a dose of 1.5 ml/l completely inhibited the mycelial growth of 22 species of fungi, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The toxic dose of the oil against the test fungi was much lower than that of some commercial fungicides.
The essential oil of Cistus parvifluorus and its antimicrobial activity is discussed by Demetzos et al. This essential oil contains 55 components including 35% esters, 1.09% alcohols, 14.47% monoterpenes, 37.22% sesquiterpenes and 37.78% diterpenes. The oil is said to be endowed with high antimicrobial activity.
The extraction of an antioxidant from Sargassum seaweed, useful for foods and cosmetics, is described in a recent patent assigned to Taiyo Fishery Co., Ltd.
Flavonoids, including morin, chrysin, woognin, rhoifolin, hesperedin, neo-hesperedin, biochanin, phellamurin, kaemferol, and/or plant extract containing these substances are useful for inhibiting peroxidation of fats and oils. Morin inhibited the peroxidation of linoleic acid with potency comparable to that of quercetin.
Synergistic antioxidant emulsions for the protection of fats in foods and cosmetics are described in a patent application assigned to Societe des Produits Nestle SA. Emulsions of ascorbic acid esters and tocopherols with lecithin as emulsifying agents are more effective antioxidants for triglycerides than any of the components alone. Chicken fat preserved with a mixture of 1000 ppm tocopherol, 500 ppm of ascorbyl palmitate and 1% soya lecithin prevented the onset of oxidation at 100 [degrees] C for 47.9 hours. Tocopherol alone was only effective for 13 hours and ascorbyl palmitate for 7.4 hours. Without any additive, oxidation was detected after 5 hours.
Glycerol phosphate salts or glycerol phosphate derivatives are described as antioxidants which may be safely used in cosmetics and foods. The antioxidant activity of a mixture of 2 mg disodium glycerol phosphate in 10 g triethylene glycol was significantly greater than that of ascorbic acid or mixed tocopherols.
A new type of deodorant that acts directly on the chemical compounds responsible for offensive body odors was investigated by Kanda et al. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of foot odor showed that short-chain fatty acids, especially isovaleric acid, were responsible for the malodor. Short-chain fatty acids were also identified in the armpit. Zinc oxide in fine particulate form was found to be very effective in converting these short-chain fatty acids into nonvolatile salts, usings a spherical resin such as …